Answer to the first 14 questions concerning scientific validation, stated by the EAP

We consider chapter 2 as our answer to the 15th question stated by EAP.

In this chapter we address each of the first14 questions stated by EAP, all meant to cast light on different aspects of theory, method, application etc., all in summary in a broad sense: scientific validity of psychotherapeutic work.

The questions will be addressed one by one. 3.1 - 3.14.

In order to offer a straight foreword readable documentation, we have chosen to give an answer to all questions, even though we understand some of the questions as very overlapping and interconnected.

Some repetition has therefore been unavoidable and indeed necessary.

Let us also just mention that our Danish school (our approach) has been visited by 2 evaluators within the EABP-Forum system.

3.1. Please provide evidence that your approach has clearly defined areas of enquiry, application, research, and practice.

3.1.1: Enquiry in The Bodynamic System (Analysis)

The enquiry work done in The Bodynamic System (Analysis) includes common procedures of psychodynamic psychotherapy, like making an initial interview and anamnesis, making a working contract with the client (or group, or "customer") and so forth, but also includes specific ways of assessing the clients resources and areas of further development as they are mirrored bodily, in posture and movement patterns, verbal patterns and interview around the client's life story (Lifemode) including analyzing the patterns of lifestyles..

The Bodymap is the ultimate tool of this type while body reading and investigation into the client's psycho-socio-physic in cooperation with the client is always used.

Our Character theory, the connected hypothesis concerning social and psychological skills and the suggested possibilities of therapeutics strategy in total, provides the therapist in Bodynamic Analysis with quite elaborate tools and methods of enquiry, as well as it is the basis for offering a quite precise mirroring of the client.

Literature describing enquiry in Bodynamic Analysis:

Peter Bernhardt & Joel Isaacs:The Bodymap. A Precise Diagnostic Tool for Psychotherapy. The j. of Bioenergetic Analysis. Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 2000.

Steen Jørgensen & Lennart Ollars:Kropslig forankring i psykoterapeutisk arbejde. (Bodily anchoring in psychotherapeutic work) En kort præsentation af Bodynamic Analyse, en kropsrelateret psykoterapiform. Psykologisk Set. København: efteråret 2001.

Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.

Integral Press, North Vancouver, BC, Canada: 1997.

This is the best and most comprehensive collection of articles describing the Bodynamic System in English so far.

3.1.2: Fields of application and practice

The Bodynamic System (Analysis) is applicable within many fields.

First of all, and most obviously, Bodynamic is used in psychotherapeutic work with individuals and groups, both in private practice and teaching, and at public and private institutions working with child development, with families and with adults.

Bodynamic can be used - and has been used - for working with a variety of client categories: from groups of mentally retarded clients, ego weak or psychotic clients to clients with more neurotic personality disorders, and all age categories. We have also earlier mentioned the field of P.T.S.D.

As previously mentioned parts of the thinking and methods of Bodynamic are applied to a wide range of different teaching and coaching e.g.:

Training of communication skills within the social working field, and within the field of teambuilding, development of communication and cooperation skills and development of leadership.

Some Bodynamic therapists in private practice, often include both individual therapeutic work, supervision and teaching connected to both private and public institutions.

Another group of trainers or finished therapists/analysts work within private or public institutions and use their Bodynamic skills in addition to other professional skills, whether it is within the area of psychotherapeutic treatment, institutions that offer mental care, or the area of teaching. Also Day Care Institutions from preschool children up to adolescents and youths is one area that many Bodynamic therapists work in.

Literature describing some of the fields of application of Bodynamic Analysis: (in Danish only)

Mulighederne i Kropsdynamisk Analyse., Bodynamic Institute, København 1989.(the possibilities in Bodynamic Analysis)

Kroppen husker det hele.,Bodynamic Kbh1993. (The body remembers it all)

Erik Jarlnæs: Betydningen af at høre sammen. (7 articles in Danish on different Bodynamic subjects) (The importance of Mutual Connection)

Forlaget Kreatik/Bodynamic Institute: København: 1995.

3.1.3: Research

We have already described in what ways we have been working on describing and validating our modality of Body Psychotherapy, please see chapter 2, about scientific validation.

In our own perception the methods of The Bodynamic System (Analysis) are so well described that it would be easy to initiate more research. The reasons that this is not done more than already described, are solely connected to the resource constraints of time and money.

3.2. Please provide evidence that your approach has demonstrated its claim to knowledge and competence within its field tradition of diagnosis/assessment and of treatment/intervention.

The Bodynamic System (Analysis) has been taught for more than 30 years in several countries in Europe, as well as in USA and Canada - the last 18 years as a specific training program. This includes both shorter and longer training programs, and also a lot of shorter workshops, lectures and presentations to institutions, hospitals and universities.

A whole series of papers have been written about different aspects of Bodynamic Theory and working method.

Foremost Lisbeth Marcher and Erik Jarlnæs, but also several other senior Bodynamic trainers have presented theory and methods of Bodynamics whilst participating in a long series of international professional congresses starting already in 1977.

During the latest 5-8 years qualified Bodynamc Analysts have also taken part in both the writing and the presenting of the system, especially in USA and Canada.

Bodynamic Trainers have been participating in organizational work both in Europe in the EABP and in recent years also in connection with the process of establishing the USABP.

Peter Bernhard has been teaching for several years at a San Fr. University (CIIS, California Institute of Integral Studies) in psychology and Bodynamic, and he was also director of a therapy clinic in Berkeley, CA.

Since 1998 Lennart Ollars has been working as a guest professor at the Psychological Institute, University of Århus, Denmark, teaching students on the clinical program of psychology about body sensation, nonverbal aspects of communication, ego development and psychotherapy. Some of Lennart's teaching colleagues outside the Institute have compared his writings on the teammodel "F8" (Flying or Falling) to the widely recognized Meyers Briggs model (MBPI).

Marianne Kristiansen, Associate professor, Aalborg University, DK, teaches at the department of communication, teaching amongst other things the use of bodynamic communication models and other models. The same applies for her colleague assistant professor Helle Alrø (who has less Bodynamic Training).

Tove Hvid, Psycholgist and associate professor at Denmarks Educational University in psychology. (written two books mentioned above - and many articles)

Psychologist, Bioenergetic Analyst and Bodynamic Therapist Josette van luytelaar, Holland, teaches medical doctors in psychology.

Ian Macnaughton, Bodynamic Analyst and trainer, is also main trainer and member of the Board in Family system Therapy, Vancouver - and also a main speaker in many therapy societies.

Lisbth Marcher, consults at Copenhagen University Special Children's Kindergarten, plus teaching at several Danish Universities and Hospitals.

More of our American trainees are working in different positions at universities, colleges etc.

Ditte Marcher has worked with the Police in Copenhagen, with difficult young people in prison in Denmark, with criminal children in a well known Swedish institution, with conflict resolution in Kosovo and she has worked with both Danish, Palestinian and Israeli soldiers, plus many Muslim groups in Denmark.

Erik Jarlnaes also works for the Danish Center for Conflict Resolution, teaching mostly in Denmark but also once in Bosnia..

The contributions of Bodynamic to the professional field probably ought to be assessed by others than ourselves, but as the question is asked, we will share our thoughts on this matter.

We regard it as one of the main contributions of The Bodynamic Analysis System, that we have developed the connections between psychological, social and motoric developmental thinking and the muscle responses of single muscles. This is reflected in our character structure model as in the Bodymap, and the eleven egofunctions.

You might say that in other words: we have put words on the connection between psychodynamic thinking, based on developmental psychology, motor-perceptual development and bodywork, with movements / action and posture as well as with muscles and added cognitive-behavioral elements.

We have also developed the integration between verbal work as seen in psychodynamic experiential psychotherapy, and nonverbal work, including tactile work with the clients' body sensations and body experiences.

On this background we are of the opinion that we have contributed to a resource oriented, cognitive-integrative way of understanding and working with the body in psychotherapy and working with psychotherapy in bodywork.

Finally, we believe that we have contributed to both understanding and finding practical ways of working not only with character logical themes, but also with PTSD and birth-issues, as well as communication, group work and conflict resolution issues.

Literature connected to this question:

Peter Bernhardt, Marianne Bentzen and Joel Isaacs: "Waking the Body Ego I: Core Concepts and Principles"

Marianne Bentzen, Peter Bernhardt and Joel Isaacs: "Waking the Body Ego II: Psychomotor Development and Character Structure"

Peter Bernhardt: Individuation, Mutual Connection and the Body's resources: An interview with Lisbeth Marcher

Peter Bernhardt: The Art Of Following Structure. An Interview with Lisbeth Marcher exploring the roots of the Bodynamic System

Sonja Fich, Lisbeth Marcher: Psykologi og Anatomi.

Sonja Fich (ed.): Testmanual/Bodymap. 2. udgave (udvidet).

Bodynamic Institute, København: 1997.

Steen Jørgensen (red.): Forløsning af choktraumer. Forlaget KREATIK, København, 1993.

Steen Jørgensen: Character structure and shock.

Bodynamic Institute, 1995. Published as p. 172 - 184 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.

3.3. Please provide evidence that your approach has a clear and self-consistent theory of the human being, of the therapeutic relationship, and of health and illness.

We believe that this question is somewhat covered earlier in Chapter 1 of this report where we described our understanding of human development:

Development of personality (bodily, social and psychological) depends on at least four kinds of interaction between the individual and its surroundings:

- pre- and perinatal processes

- learning ways of acting and understanding from seeing and imitating parents, siblings and other close social persons

- the character logical development that comes out of everyday interaction with the same persons

- more sudden events, eventually mostly like peak experiences, eventually traumatic events causing different degrees of post-traumatic disturbances

Also the transpersonal or spiritual dimension of human development is seen as being influenced by all three kinds of interaction, as well as of course in many cases by a deliberately chosen meditative or spiritual practice.

It is our basic theory, based on actual observations, that psychological, social and motor-perceptual development is interconnected and inseparable. Our basic theory contains three (or rather four) aspects of the ego: body, identity and social role (and in addition: the observing part of the ego), as well as 11 functions of the ego: Connectedness; Posture and Positioning; Centering; Boundaries; Grounding and Reality Testing; Social Balances; Cognitive skills; Gender and gender skills; Management of Energy; Self-Expression; and finally: Habits of Interpersonal Contact.

We understand the child's development as moving through a series of thematic phases: existence, need, autonomy, will, love-sexuality, opinion, and solidarity-performance. Also the teenage period is understood as a significant period of personal development. It is part of our theory (based on actual observations) that the child in each of these thematic phases can go through a healthy development or get stuck in either hypo-responsive or hyper-responsive body-psychological-social patterns.We have observed that the result of this psychological and social development is connected to the motor-perceptual development, and is thus mirrored in the body and movement of the individual, so that defense patterns as well as resources are reflected in the body, muscles-responses and movement. Special attention is also given to the development and management of boundaries in interaction with others.

Both principles and specific ways of working psychotherapeutically are developed to meet variations of developmental disturbances as they are expressed bodily, psychologically and socially. Parallel at the same time the Bodynamic System (Analysis) has developed specific ways of understanding and working with disturbed pre- and perinatal processes and with posttraumatic disturbances.

We might add that the developmental model (the Character Structure model) is elaborated in a way so that it describes not only typical tension patterns and postures, but also typical social behavior and relational patterns, typical verbal key-sentences etc, connected to each sub-theme of development.

Thus this model can also be used as a model for describing different patterns of transference and counter transference, in a quite specific way.

It is our experience, also from teaching and training non-bodynamic therapists, that this way of thinking offers a helpful and operational approach to the very difficult task of untangling transference and counter transference. In fact we in the institute use this method of thinking - and other professionals who have taken Bodynamic training also use it.

Touch.

We regard touch as a natural part of out therapeutic approach. When, how and where you touch, is individually based, depending on the client and this is taught in our training programs.

Being a body psychotherapist, it is obvious that touch is necessary, but as soon as we work in the PTSD-field we are a minority in number and low on the recognized scale. Part of the reason is the USA-influence (read psychiatrists) in the PTSD field, and their fear for therapists overstepping boundaries of the client (e.g. sexual relationships between therapist and client that happens too often, so the fear is real) - so politically it has been banned. Another part is that also psychologists and psychiatrists in many European countries have the same ban. So the political situation produces fear in most psychotherapists, and they tend to stay away from touching - whereas the body psychotherapist keep touching - and we are well trained in this.

As the EABP description says in answering question 3D, not a lot has been written about touch.

A new book written by Physiology professor Kerstin Moberg, Stockholm describes how touch helps a part of the autonomic nervous system to calm down (the parasympathetic part). This is like a "calming-down" reflex, just as important as the sympathetic "fight-flight" reflex. Kerstin Moberg: Lugn och beröring (Calming down and Touch- the healing impact of oxytocin in the body). Stockholm, 2000.

Bodynamic trainers has written the following: Ethical considerations in somatic therapies. Macnaughton, Bentzen and Jarlnaes, in Macnaughtons book: Embodying the Mind, Minding the Body, 1997

3.4. Please provide evidence that your approach has methods specific to the approach which generate developments in the theory of psychotherapy, demonstrate new aspects in the understanding of human nature, and lead to ways of treatment/intervention.

We see it as one of the main contributions of the Bodynamic System (Analysis), that we have developed the connection between psychological, social and motor-perceptual developmental thinking and the muscle responses of single muscles. As stated this is reflected in our Character Structure model as in the Bodymap, and the Eleven Ego Functions.

You might say that in other words: We have put words on the connection between psychodynamic thinking, based on developmental psychology, motor-perceptual development and bodywork, with movements / action and posture as well as with muscles. And, this includes Ollars research concerning the reliability of the muscle test, (the Bodymap).

We have also elaborated the integration between verbal work as seen in psychodynamic experiential psychotherapy, and verbal and nonverbal also including tactile work with the client's body sensations and body experiences.

On this background it is our own opinion that we have contributed to a resource oriented, cognitive-integrative way of understanding and working with the body in psychotherapy.

It is furthermore our perception that the work we have done within the area of describing and understanding boundaries, especially in connection to children's development, has had quite an impact on pedagogues and professionals.

In the field of touch Ian Macnaughton and Erik Jarlnaes have written an article about this in a Canadian journal for counseling psychotherapy (also Macnaughtons book, see above) that shares the Bodynamic views on this area, and we shall briefly share some of the thoughts:

When we touch we primarily do so with well-bounded hands, firm hands.

Then we make a distinction between 3 ways of touching: A provoking touch, a supportive touch and a neutral touch.

The provoking touch can happen in either a "female" way that is used for muscles that are "hyporesponsive", or a "male" way that is used for muscles that are "hyperresponsive".

The supportive touch can also happen in either a "female" way which is used so that the client can lean into the hand, or a "male" way where the client gets a little push ("it is ok that you go out in the world).

The neutral touch receives the response from the muscles, when the client verbally answers different questions from the therapist. This is a kind of biofeedback, since the therapist can pick up if the question he puts forward is "wrong" in relation to the situation, or too provoking or right on in the balance (meaning whether it touches the client overwhelmingly or psychologically)

Finally, we believe that we have contributed to both the understanding and the practical ways of working not only with character logical themes, but also with PTSD and birth-issues.

For further information concerning our historical perspective see both chapter 1 and the EABP-answer in question 4.

Literature:

Peter Bernhardt, Marianne Bentzen and Joel Isaacs: "Waking the Body Ego I: Core Concepts and Principles"

Marianne Bentzen, Peter Bernhardt and Joel Isaacs: "Waking the Body Ego II: Psychomotor Development and Character Structure"

Peter Bernhardt: Individuation, Mutual Connection and the Body's resources: An interview with Lisbeth Marcher

Peter Bernhardt: The Art Of Following Structure. An Interview with Lisbeth Marcher exploring the roots of the Bodynamic System

Sonja Fich, Lisbeth Marcher: Psykologi og Anatomi.

Sonja Fich (ed.): Testmanual/Bodymap. 2. udgave (udvidet).

Bodynamic Institute, København: 1997.

Steen Jørgensen (red.): Forløsning af choktraumer. Forlaget KREATIK, København, 1993.

Steen Jørgensen: Character structure and shock.

Bodynamic Institute, 1995. Published as p. 172 - 184 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.

3.5. Please provide evidence that your approach includes processes of verbal exchange, alongside an awareness of non-verbal sources of information and communication.

We work as well with traditional body-posture reading connected to the ego-development model, as we more or less constantly work by addressing the body sensations and body experiences of the client, both directly by asking and also by using mirroring interventions. Most of this information, checking and exchange with the client, is verbal - in order to develop his awareness.

The way we do this is of course very individualistic, but part of it is described in the 2 models: "The Bodyknot" and "Active sensing" (our expanded version of Rogers "active listening"). Both models are very important for us as therapists not only in order to be precise in the contact, but also as tools that we teach the clients to use in their environments so that their communicative- and contact skills improve.

In relation to Michael Hellers research (see the EABP-answer to question no.5) that shows that there are over a million possible non-verbal exchanges of information in a single psychotherapy session of any sort and Alfred Pritz that states that about 80% of our communication system is non-verbal, we find it interesting that we "so to speak" have added the non-verbal component to Rogers model of "active listening", because we experienced (and got the feedback) that clients felt much more "seen" when we included this part in our exchange.

When we are doing our therapy we both support and/or confront, verbally and/or non-verbally and we draw on all the other models we have in order to decide the most "fitting" verbal content, transformed into a genuine expression from the therapist to the client.

The psychotherapeutic room or field is primarily set or established through verbal contact and contract, whereas the actual therapeutic work is mixed nonverbal and verbal.

The interpretation of the Bodymap is done verbally, AND in contact.

Hardly any session would end without an integrative piece of mutual (verbal and bodily) understanding on the outcome of the session and most often also with home-assignments for the client, which will be reported and "commented" on in the first part of the next session.

Please also see chapters: 1. and 3.2.

3.6. Please provide evidence that your approach offers a clear rationale for treatment / interventions facilitating constructive change of the factors provoking or maintaining illness or suffering.

and:

3.7. Please provide evidence that your approach has clearly defined strategies enabling clients to develop a new organisation of experience and behaviour.

We have allowed ourselves to give a joint answer to these two questions, as we understand them as very interconnected.

As we pointed out in chapter 1, working with clients in The Bodynamic System (Analysis) includes an understanding of many aspects: bodily tension patterns and movement patterns, psychological and interactional difficulties as well as resources, social conditions in the client's present life (economic, in terms of work and other activity, social networks etc) and an understanding of the client's previous experiences during upbringing and general family experiences.

Our models include not only a paradigm of extreme ways of being, but also of a healthy way of functioning - a flexible way of being - in the society you belong to. And this without having any RIGHT / WRONG way of being, but instead having access to the ability of being flexible.

This understanding is developed and shared in cooperation with the client, and the outcome of this and of the actual therapeutic work in sessions will almost always lead towards new ways of acting for the client, because we have a clear contract from the beginning that includes which issue the client wants to change, and how the client wants "the reality" to "look like" after the change (how he has integrated the therapeutic growth in relation to himself and other people in his environment).

A basic attitude in Bodynamic System (Analysis) is this: history was there, and can not be changed, the present world is here, and might be somewhat influenced but is still pretty given, and: there is always a possibility of understanding and relating in new ways both to history, yourself and the present world. This is also expressed in one of our "catch phrases" (slogans): "It is never too late...".

In EABP's answer (to question 6) it says "whilst past history cannot be changed, emotional reactions to the historical events and the client's feelings about themselves that result from this history, can be altered significantly".

Often we refer to this change of perspective in the words of tracking old codes, decoding and recoding, and sometimes actually just coding: learning new stuff from the beginning. We use the concept "Re-decision", originally taught to us by different T.A. people, to help develop new beliefs that are very important when we have to live in a healthy way in our society.

A few examples of papers relating to these questions:

Peter Bernhardt: Individuation, Mutual Connection and the Body's resources: An interview with Lisbeth Marcher

Peter Bernhardt: The Art Of Following Structure. An Interview with Lisbeth Marcher exploring the Roots of the Bodynamic System

Lennart Ollars. Voksnes Udvikling . Forlaget Kreatik ,Kbh.:1984.

Lennart Ollars: Om virkningerne af intensiv psykologisk træning. Teknologisk Institut København 1974.

Møde med mennesket, Teknologisk Institut København 1973.

3.8. Please provide evidence that your approach is open to dialogue with other psychotherapy modalities about its field of theory and practice.

As mentioned earlier we have invested a significant amount of energy in describing our theory, our working models and our way of working, a fact reflected in the length of our bibliography.

Not only do our members have many different professional backgrounds before being associated with Bodynamic, but our members also have extensive training in other modalities, and through that they have been in dialogue with other psychotherapy modalities.

2 are certified in Bioenergetic Analysis. 1 has extensive TA training. 2 have participated in many workshops with Richard Erskine (Integrated Psychotherapy) 4 have 20 days of training in NLP already back in 1979-81. All members have basic TA 101, basic gestalt training (15 days) or more than basic (1-2 years). 2 have 3 years of training in Biosynthesis. 2 have many years of Pesso-Boyden training. 2 have lots of systems training workshops, one is certified in the Human Element leadership training (Will Schutz). 1 has extended training with Stanislav Grof. We all have had forgiveness training, and lots of PTSD training (eg. Levine, Kohlrieser and Kirsch).

So we feel well equipped in the dialogues that arise when we visit conferences, Universities etc. plus when we internally constantly challenge and expand our own theory.

Also, being that it is a group that has developed the Bodynamic System, instead of a one-person system, has assured that this dialogue takes place - and we always welcome it.

In addition to this we have also in the last 20 years attended a long series of congresses.

Several of our trainers have attended a long series of international congresses within the areas of body psychotherapy, (se also the EABP answer to question 8), Pre- and Perinatal psychology and PTSD, but also within other traditions of psychotherapy. Predominantly Lisbeth Marcher but also several other Bodynamic trainers have offered a long series of presentations at congresses, in Europe and USA.

Over these years we have always regarded congresses not only as a platform for presenting ourselves (or as Tom Lehrer, a famous american comedian, would has put it, for "selling the product"), but certainly also as an opportunity to get into dialogue with professional colleagues in the field.

We have included a list of congresses we have attended, as part 5 of this documentation.

In addition to this we have always, for more than 20 years now, invited trainers from other body psychotherapeutic traditions, and from other modalities of psychotherapy to teach members of our institute, and in the most recent years we have also guest-trainers in our education, and as a part of this they are invited to have discussions with us.

We feel open and willing to cooperate with other modalities as long as integration is possible, both theoretically and in praxis - and this is not possible with all theories or praxis, because some are in direct opposition!!

Eg: When some systems believe in breaking down defenses, while we believe in building up resources (and are against the breaking down) and when some systems believe in exploding boundaries while we believe in expanding boundaries - then it is not possible. But of course we have to discover this before we can reach a conclusion.

Even when we find modalities very different, we are willing to discuss and look into the differences in order to understand the other modalities, notice how they differ from our beliefs, and see if /what we can learn from the other systems. We also find it challenging to discuss and find out the practical outcomes of being different.

As an example, we have looked at how some therapists have a basic human belief that "you are alone", and comparing this with our belief that "you always have a relation" (which shows in our basic concept "Mutual Connection"). When we compare teaching in a group or doing therapy the two systems look pretty much the same, we use the same kind of words and we wonder where the differences are - and then suddenly... it shows that there is a lack of caring when clients have a lot of "giving up" plus they have "early issues" (early childhood issues). Here we notice that some therapists leave the clients to figure out things themselves, whilst we teach (similar) clients what they are missing.

There are many more situations that will be interesting to look at. The next thing is that within a system it shows that therapists have different opinions / values - and sometimes therapists within the same system will teach their clients different values. But then we have discrepancies between systems and their therapists, and how do we tackle this?

Irwin Yalom writes well on existentialism as background for a similar therapist approach, yet he emphasizes the "basically being alone" aspect, which we disagree with, and believe the "basically being in Mutual Connection" aspect. And at the same time it looks like we use many of the same observations, words, descriptions, interventions etc. Therefore the question is can we cooperate ?

These are the kind of considerations that we are making and discussing, among ourselves and with each other.

3.9. Please provide evidence that your approach has a way of methodically describing the chosen fields of study and the methods of treatment or intervention which can be used by other colleagues.

We have put a lot of effort into writing about our thoughts and experiences, both about theory and practice, a fact that we have already documented, and feel it would too repetitive to take up again.

However, we would like to emphasize that our physical understanding of the body comes from intensive studies of muscles and their movements, including principles of stretching and tensing up, how to give Bodynamic massage strokes, physical training principles etc. and in order to support this whole area of study we use books that are available from other professional fields. On top of this we have the Danish tradition from the Relaxation Educations, where their exists a wealth of literature on aspects of Body Awareness. See books by Jorgensen, Ivanow and Ollars, and the book by Jarlnaes (ed) - although they are all in Danish.

We put a lot of emphasis on this precise knowledge, because we see the body as the container for emotional well-being, and the more precise you know your body and your resources and possibilities -the healthier you are, and the better possibilities you have to function well, personally, in your worklife and socially.

It is also in this area we see possibilities for a common knowledge for all body psychotherapy approaches. (See also the EABP-answer to question 9)

For an extended answer on this question, see chapter 2, segment 3.8 and part 5: our bibliography.

3.10. Please provide evidence that your approach is associated with information which is the result of conscious self reflection, and critical reflection by other professionals within the approach.

We are in a constant ongoing process of developing and correcting our understanding both of the specific connections between muscles and psychological themes, and in developing further connection between what we already believe to know, and new knowledge coming from inside our own practice and outside from the professional field.

One area we are very preoccupied with is the growing knowledge stemming from research in the area of PTSD and in the area of overlap between medical psychology, brain- and neurological research, understanding of human hormone and immune systems etc.

We also work on integrating this new knowledge in new practice-oriented models. For the time being we are, as stated earlier, working on a more specific understanding of emotions, as we are trying to separate levels of instincts, emotions and feelings. In this context we are trying to integrate results from contemporary animal research and medical science, concerning brain scanning and blood-testing, reflecting different layers of emotion and behavior.

In order to nurture this process we do several things in addition to simply reading new literature: we participate in congresses in the above mentioned areas, we continuously arrange approximately 5-6 days of internal updating every year (for ourselves and the staff of guest teachers), and we arrange approximately 4 - 6 days a year to make updates and share dialogue with our former trainees. Some of this updating is lead by ourselves, some of it by teachers / trainers from outside the Institute.

In this context we will repeat that we also present our work at congresses arranged by other psychotherapeutic traditions, as well on congresses within the field of body psychotherapy.

Whenever we have a chance to do it, we also expose ourselves to dialogue with the more established academic psychology and psychotherapy traditions, sometimes quite a task, but most often a rewarding task.

Lennart Ollars association to the University of Århus could be one example of our efforts to get into a dialogue with the established academia.

Marianne Kristtiansen and Hella Alrø's association with the University of Aalborg is another example.

We would like to mention an example of our interest in joining and offering our knowledge to the ongoing development of culture and society.

Ditte Marcher is currently working systematically with issues relating to multi-cultural ism and integration, an issue that is very "hot" at least in Denmark.

Ditte Marcher is also working in cooperation with the international organization: "Doctors without Frontiers".

We do miss a more specific, detailed and critical, but still respectful, dialogue between ourselves and body psychotherapists coming from other submodalities of body psychotherapy (please see the EABP answer to this question 10).

Until now it seems like most body psychotherapists have been preoccupied with describing their own approach.

It seems though, especially through the work of the Forum of EABP with the mutual recognition visits, that a new phase of cooperation is emerging: there seems to be a growing interest to search for a common ground of body psychotherapy, as well for a language that can respectfully put words on the differences between submodalities of body psychotherapy.

The upcoming autumn EABP congress, in September 2001, is addressing these issues, and several of the senior trainers from Bodynamic International will be active there with presentations.

3.11. Please provide evidence that your approach offers new knowledge, which is differentiated and distinctive, in the domain of psychotherapy.

A whole series of papers have been written about different aspects of Bodynamic Theory and working method.

The contributions of Bodynamic to the professional field probably ought to be assessed by others than ourselves (at least according to our Scandinavian norms concerning modesty), but as the question is asked, we will share our thoughts on this matter.

We see it as one of the main contributions of The Bodynamic System (Analysis), that we have developed the connection between psychological, social and motoric developmental thinking to the muscle responses of single muscles. This is reflected in our Character Structure model as in the Bodymap, and the eleven Ego functions.

You might say that in other words: we have put words on the connection between psychodynamic thinking, based on developmental psychology, motoric development and bodywork, with movements / action and posture as well as with muscles.

We have also developed the integration between verbal work as seen in psychodynamic experiential psychotherapy, and verbal and nonverbal also including tactile work with the client's body sensations and body experiences.

On this background we are of the opinion that we have contributed to a resource oriented, cognitive-integrative way of understanding and working with the body in psychotherapy.

Finally, we believe that we have contributed to both the understanding and the practical ways of working not only with character logical themes, but also with PTSD and birth-issues. (See also EABP-answer to this question 11).

Literature:

Peter Bernhardt, Marianne Bentzen and Joel Isaacs: "Waking the Body Ego I: Core Concepts and Principles"

Marianne Bentzen, Peter Bernhardt and Joel Isaacs: "Waking the Body Ego II: Psychomotor Development and Character Structure"

Peter Bernhardt: Individuation, Mutual Connection and the Body's resources: An interview with Lisbeth Marcher

Peter Bernhardt: The Art Of Following Structure. An Interview with Lisbeth Marcher exploring the roots of the Bodynamic System

Sonja Fich, Lisbeth Marcher: Psykologi og Anatomi.

Sonja Fich (ed.): Testmanual/Bodymap. 2. udgave (udvidet).

Bodynamic Institute, København: 1997.

Steen Jørgensen (red.): Forløsning af choktraumer. Forlaget KREATIK, København, 1993.

Steen Jørgensen: Character structure and shock.

Bodynamic Institute, 1995. Published as p. 172 - 184 in: Ian Macnaughton, Ph.D. (ed.): Embodying the Mind & Minding the Body.

3.12. Please provide evidence that your approach is capable of being integrated with other approaches considered to be part of scientific psychotherapy so that it can be seen to share with them areas of common ground.

It is our experience that the thinking and the way of working in Bodynamic Analysis is very compatible, and thus can be inspirational for therapists coming from as varied traditions as: analytical and psychodynamic tradition, cognitive and behavioral tradition, the family or systemic oriented tradition and as one more example: gestalt therapy.

The same can be said for non-therapeutic psychologists focusing on communication or the flow of consciousness.

This experience of ours comes from dialogue with therapists from the mentioned traditions, from the occasions where we have presented our approach, theory and method during speeches or special teachings to these groups.

Both Ditte Marcher and Erik Jarlnæs have done quite a lot of work in cooperation with institutes and groups that focus on conflict resolution, also in a cross cultural sense, for example in Bosnia and Kosova.

Lisbeth Marcher has started a closer cooperation with The Human Element Institute (Will Schutz).

We believe that it is the broad approach of the Bodynamic System (Analysis), including the body, as behavior, emotions, thinking patterns, social network work, and psychodynamic understanding, that makes this integration and mutual inspiration possible and rewarding.

At least in Denmark there is an ongoing movement towards a more integrative approach to psychotherapeutic understanding and practice.

Viewed historically it could be fair to say that different traditions have focused on one, and mostly one of the following aspects: emotions, behavior, thinking patterns or interactional patterns.

In contrast to this, the more integrative approach tries to emphasize, that even though a specific tradition (like cognitive therapy) focuses mostly on one aspect (thinking patterns), it should not neglect in practice that the other aspects are very much present (the clients do have emotions and relations as well as they behave, and not to forget: all this is done also with and within the body!).

Please consult with the EABP answer to question no 12, where you will find

3 references among 8 mentioned.

3.13. Please provide evidence that your approach describes and displays a coherent strategy to understanding human problems, and an explicit relation between methods of treatment/intervention and results.

As we pointed out in chapter 1, working with clients in Bodynamic Analysis includes an understanding of many aspects: bodily tension patterns and movement patterns, psychological and interactional difficulties as well as resources, social conditions in present life (economic, work and other activities, social networks etc) and an understanding of the clients previous experiences during upbringing and family experience.

It is our basic theory, based on actual observations, that the psychological, social and motoric development is interconnected and inseparable. Our basic theory contains three (or rather four) aspects of the ego: body, identity and social role (and in addition: the observing part of the ego), as well as 11 functions of the ego: Connectedness; Posture and Positioning; Centering; Boundaries; Grounding and Reality Testing; Balances; Cognitive skills; Gender and gender skills; Management of Energy; Self-Expression; and finally: Habits of Interpersonal Contact.

We understand a child's development as moving through a series of thematic phases: existence, need, autonomy, will, love-sexuality, opinion, and solidarity-performance. Also the teenage period is understood as a significant period of personal development. It is part of our theory (based on actual observations) that a child in each of these thematic phases can go through a healthy development or get stuck in either hypo-responsive or hyper-responsive body-psycholocical-social patterns. It is our observation that the result of this psychological and social development is connected to the motoric development, and thus is mirrored in the body and movement of the individual, so that defense patterns as well as resources are reflected in the body, muscles-responses and movement. Special attention is also given to the development and management of boundaries in interaction with others.

The ultimate working tool in Bodynamic Analysis is the Bodymap, an elaborate and precise mapping of both resources and blockages in the client's body, where these are mapped, as mentioned above, in elasticity patterns in the muscles.

Both principles and specific ways of working psychotherapeuticly are developed to meet variations of developmental disturbances as they are expressed bodily, psychologically and socially. In a parallel way Bodynamic Analysis has developed specific ways of understanding and working with disturbed pre- and perinatal processes and with posttraumatic disturbances.

We also work with the Bodymap, with traditional body-posture reading connected to the ego-development model, and constantly by addressing the body sensations and body experiences of the client, both directly by asking and also by using mirroring interventions. Most of this information and checking and exchange with the client, in order to develop his awareness, is verbal.

Hardly any session would end without an integrative piece of mutual understanding of the outcome of the session, and often also with home-assignments for the client.

Literature:

Peter Bernhardt: Individuation, Mutual Connection and the Body's resources: An interview with Lisbeth Marcher

Peter Bernhardt: The Art Of Following Structure. An Interview with Lisbeth Marcher exploring the roots of the Bodynamic System

Lennart Ollars. Voksnes Udvikling . Forlaget Kreatik ,Kbh.:1984.

Lennart Ollars: Om virkningerne af intensiv psykologisk træning. Teknologisk Institut København 1974.

Møde med mennesket, Teknologisk Institut København 1973.

3.14. Please provide evidence that your approach has theories of normal and problematic human behavior which are explicitly related to effective methods of diagnosis/assessment and treatment/intervention.

Again it seems obvious to mention the character structure model, which describes early disturbances (psychologically: giving up, depressed or "not-knowing-about"-related patterns, and bodily: hyporesponsive patterns), late disturbances (psychologically: actively defensive holding back, often anger-based patterns and bodily: hyperresponsive tension patterns).

Especially an understanding of the first three developmental phases will be fairly accurate in describing the precise dynamics of personality disorders like ego-weakness, unbounderdness, border-psychotic and borderline.

Likewise ,it will probably be later developmental disturbances that you would expect to find connected to diagnostic terms like: neurotic, rigid, persistent etc.

In addition to this it is interesting to see how many bodily characteristics you are presented with when describing panic, anxiety-attacks and PTSD.

Bodynamic Analysis provides both verbal and non-verbal working strategies for all the above-mentioned states.

The Bodynamic System (Analysis) has also provided therapists with working tools to help (not necessarily cure) as different client categories as: very early damaged and multi handicapped children, autistic and psychotic children, mentally handicapped grown ups, victims of torture and abuse, multipersonality disorder, anorexia and other eating-disorders etc.

In our teaching is contained a workshop that specifically teaches the relationship between our theories and traditional psychiatry and diagnostic models (in USA DSM-4).

For further info on this question, please see chapter: 1, and: 3.1, 3.3 & 3.6..

 

Источник: www.bodynamic.dk